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Shirataki noodles are a unique food that’s very filling yet low in calories. These noodles also contain a type of fiber that has impressive health benefits. This fiber has been shown to cause weight loss in numerous studies.


What are Shirataki Noodles?


They are often called miracle noodles or konjac noodles. They’re made from glucomannan, a type of fiber that comes from the root of the konjac plant, which grows in Japan, China and Southeast Asia. It contains very few digestible carbs, but most of its carbs come from glucomannan fiber.


“Shirataki” is Japanese for “white waterfall,” which describes the noodles’ translucent appearance.


Shirataki noodles contain a lot of water. In fact, they are about 97% water and 3% glucomannan fiber. They’re also very low in calories and contain no digestible carbs. There is also a variation of shirataki noodles known as tofu shirataki noodles.


Bottom Line: Shirataki noodles are a low-calorie food made from glucomannan, a type of fiber found in the Asian konjac plant.


Shirataki Noodles Are High in Viscous Fiber


Glucomannan is a highly viscous fiber, which is a type of soluble fiber, and one of its main characteristics is the ability to absorb water and form a gel. It can absorb up to 50 times its weight in water, as reflected in shirataki noodles’ extremely high water content.


These noodles move through the digestive system very slowly, which helps you feel full and delays nutrient absorption into the bloodstream. In addition, viscous fiber functions as a prebiotic. It nourishes the bacteria living in your colon, also known as the gut flora or microbiome.


In your colon, bacteria ferment fiber into short-chain fatty acids, which can fight inflammation, boost immune function and provide other health benefits.


Since a typical serving of shirataki noodles contains about 1–3 grams of glucomannan, it’s essentially a calorie-free, carb-free food.


Bottom Line: Glucomannan is a viscous fiber that can hold onto water and slow down digestion. In the colon, it’s fermented into short-chain fatty acids that may provide several health benefits.


Shirataki Noodles Can Help You Lose Weight


Shirataki noodles can be a powerful weight loss tool. Their viscous fiber delays stomach emptying, so you stay full longer and end up eating less. In addition, fermenting fiber into short-chain fatty acids can stimulate the release of a gut hormone known as PYY, which increases feelings of fullness. What’s more, taking glucomannan before a high-carb load appears to reduce levels of the “hunger hormone” ghrelin. It was also shown to reduce fasting ghrelin levels when taken daily for 4 weeks.


Bottom Line: Glucomannan promotes feelings of fullness that may cause a spontaneous reduction in calorie intake and lead to weight loss.

Shirataki Noodles Can Reduce Blood Sugar and Insulin Levels


Blood Glucose Meter and StripsGlucomannan has been shown to help lower blood sugar levels in people with diabetes and insulin resistance. Because viscous fiber delays stomach emptying, blood sugar and insulin levels rise more gradually as nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream.


Bottom Line: Shirataki noodles can delay stomach emptying, which may help prevent blood sugar spikes after meals.


Shirataki Noodles May Lower Cholesterol


Several studies also suggest that taking glucomannan may help lower cholesterol levels. Researchers have reported that glucomannan increases the amount of cholesterol excreted in the stool, so less is reabsorbed into the bloodstream.


A review of 14 studies found that glucomannan lowered LDL cholesterol by an average of 16 mg/dL and triglycerides by an average of 11 mg/dl.


Bottom Line: Studies show that glucomannan may help lower LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels.


Shirataki Noodles May Relieve Constipation


Many people have chronic constipation or infrequent bowel movements that are difficult to pass. Glucomannan has been shown to be an effective treatment for constipation in both children and adults.


Bottom Line: Glucomannan may effectively treat constipation in children and adults, due to its laxative effects and benefits for gut health.


Potential Side Effects of Shirataki Noodles


For some, glucomannan may cause mild digestive issues such as loose stools, bloating and flatulence. Glucomannan has been found to be safe at all dosages tested in studies; nevertheless, as is the case with all fiber, it’s best to introduce glucomannan into your diet gradually.


In addition, glucomannan may reduce the absorption of certain medications taken by mouth, including some diabetes medications. To prevent this, make sure to take medication at least one hour before or four hours after eating shirataki noodles.


Bottom Line: Shirataki noodles are safe to consume, but may cause digestive issues for some. They may also reduce the absorption of certain medications.


How to Cook with Shirataki Noodles


Shirataki noodles can seem a bit daunting to prepare at first. They’re packaged in fishy-smelling liquid, which is actually plain water that has absorbed the odor of the konjac root. Therefore, it’s important to rinse them very well for a few minutes under fresh, running water. This should remove most of the odor. 


You should also heat the noodles in a skillet for several minutes with no added fat. This step removes any excess water and allows the noodles to take on a more noodle-like texture. If too much water remains, they will be mushy.


Easy shirataki noodle recipe containing only a few ingredients:


Shirataki Macaroni and Cheese


(Serves 1–2)


Note: For this recipe, it’s best to use shorter types of shirataki noodles like ziti or rice.




1 package (200 grams/7 oz) of shirataki noodles or shirataki rice.

Olive oil or butter for greasing the ramekin.

3 ounces (85 grams) of grated cheddar cheese.

1 Tablespoon butter.

A half teaspoon sea salt.



Preheat oven to 350°F (175°C).

Rinse the noodles under running water for at least 2 minutes.

Transfer the noodles to a skillet and cook over medium-high heat for 5–10 minutes, stirring occasionally.

While the noodles are cooking, grease a 2-cup ramekin with olive oil or butter.

Transfer the cooked noodles to the ramekin, add remaining ingredients and stir well. Bake for 20 minutes, remove from oven and serve.

Shirataki noodles can be used in place of pasta or rice in any dish.


However, they tend to work best in Asian recipes. The noodles have no flavor but will absorb the flavors of sauces and seasonings very well.


Shirataki noodles are a great substitute for traditional noodles. In addition to being extremely low in calories, they help you feel full and may be beneficial for weight loss. Not only that, but they also have benefits for blood sugar levels, cholesterol and digestive health.



Source: Authority Nutrition

Oats are a highly nutritious grain with many health benefits.


However, there is a lot of confusion about whether oats and oatmeal contain gluten. Oats are naturally gluten-free, but often get contaminated with gluten from other grains.


This article explores whether you should include oats in a gluten-free diet.


What’s The Problem With Gluten?


Gluten-free diets are very popular. Surveys have found that as many as 15 to 30% of people in the US try to avoid gluten for one reason or another.


However, many of those who avoid gluten don’t even really know what it is.

Gluten is a family of proteins found in grains such as wheat, rye and barley. These proteins give bread and pasta their stretchy, chewy texture.


Unfortunately, these proteins can cause serious health problems for certain people. This may be because its unique amino acid structure can actually make it harder for the digestive enzymes in the gut to break it down.


If you have celiac disease, your body launches an autoimmune response to gluten, damaging the lining of the intestine. In wheat allergy, the immune system overreacts to the presence of wheat proteins. For those sensitive to gluten, even a tiny amount can make them sick. A gluten-free diet is the only way for these people to avoid serious health issues.


Bottom Line: Gluten is a protein found in wheat, barley and rye. Most people can tolerate it, but it can cause serious health issues for some individuals.


Are Oats Gluten-Free?

The truth is that pure oats are gluten-free and safe for most people with gluten intolerance.


However, oats are often contaminated with gluten because they may be processed in the same facilities as gluten-containing grains like wheat, rye and barley.


Studies show that most people with celiac disease or wheat allergy can eat 50–100 grams of pure oats per day without adverse effects. Additionally, a few studies found that celiac disease patients in countries that recommended including oats in a gluten-free diet had better intestinal healing than patients in countries that did not. Since pure oats are gluten-free, they’re usually safe for people with a wheat allergy as long as they’re not contaminated with wheat.


Bottom Line: Most people who are gluten intolerant can safely eat pure oats. This includes people with celiac disease.


Oats are Often Contaminated With Gluten

Although oats themselves don’t contain gluten, they’re often grown alongside other crops. The same equipment is typically used to harvest crops in neighboring fields, which leads to cross-contamination if one of those crops contains gluten. Products made with oats are also usually processed in the same facilities as gluten-containing products, and are prepared and packaged with the same equipment.


Therefore, studies analyzing regular oat products found levels of gluten far exceeding the standard for gluten-free foods.

This high risk of contamination means it’s not safe to include conventionally grown and processed oats in a strict gluten-free diet. For this reason, a number of companies have begun to grow and process oats with designated gluten-free fields and equipment. These oats can then be marketed as gluten-free, and must contain less than 20 ppm of gluten.


Even gluten-free labels may not be 100% reliable. One study found that only 95% of products labeled gluten-free actually had safe levels. However, 100% of the oat products passed the test. This means that certified gluten-free labels on oats and oatmeal can be trusted in most cases.


Bottom Line: Oats are often contaminated with gluten during growing or processing, but many companies are now producing uncontaminated oats.


Oats Contain a Protein Called Avenin, Which May Cause Problems for Some People

Even with contamination ruled out, a small number of people with celiac disease (and possibly other conditions) will still not be able to tolerate pure oats. Pure oats contain a protein called avenin, which may cause problems because it has a similar amino acid structure as gluten.


The majority of people who are sensitive to gluten do not react to avenin. They can eat pure, uncontaminated oats with no problems. However, a small percentage of people with celiac disease may react to avenin. For these few people, even certified gluten-free oats may cause some reaction.


Bottom Line: Oats contain a protein called avenin. A small percentage of people with celiac disease react to avenin and can’t tolerate pure oats.


Oats Have Many Health Benefits

Gluten-free diets are often limited when it comes to food choices, especially with grains and starchy foods. Including oats and products like oatmeal or healthy granola bars can add much-needed variety.


Several studies have also shown that following a gluten-free diet frequently results in an inadequate intake of fiber, B vitamins, folate and minerals such as iron, magnesium, selenium, manganese and zinc. Oats happen to be a good source of all of these vitamins and minerals. They’re also a fantastic source of fiber.


Should You Include Oats in a Gluten-Free Diet?


There are many benefits to including oats in a gluten-free diet. Oats are used in many gluten-free products, and oat flour is popular in gluten-free baking. Oatmeal is also a breakfast favorite for many people.


However, it’s important to buy only oats and oat products that are labeled or certified as gluten-free. This ensures the oats are pure and uncontaminated. These days, it’s easy to buy pure oats in many grocery stores and online.


The decision to include oats should be made on an individual basis. Since it’s not possible to know who may react to avenin, it’s a good idea to talk to your doctor or registered dietitian/nutritionist before adding oats to a gluten-free diet.



Source: Authority Nutrition

Regardless of the increasing debate over its necessity, breakfast still holds a mass of advocates. However, eating breakfast wrong could be more harmful than not eating breakfast at all. On the contrary, eating the right foods can give you energy and prevent you from eating too much during the rest of the day.


Here are the 12 best foods you can eat in the morning.


1. Eggs

Eggs are undeniably healthy and delicious.


Studies have shown that eating eggs at breakfast increases fullness, reduces calorie intake at the next meal and helps maintain steady blood sugar and insulin levels.


Additionally, egg yolks contain lutein and zeaxanthin. These antioxidants help prevent eye disorders like cataracts and macular degeneration. Eggs are also one of the best sources of choline, a nutrient that’s very important for brain and liver health.


What’s more, three large eggs provide about 20 grams of high-quality protein. Eggs are also very versatile. For example, hard-boiled eggs make a great portable breakfast that can be prepared ahead of time.


Bottom Line: Eggs are high in protein and several important nutrients. They also promote fullness and help you eat fewer calories.


2. Greek Yogurt


Greek yogurt is creamy, delicious and nourishing. It is made by straining whey and other liquid from the curds, which produces a creamier yogurt that is more concentrated in protein. Protein has been shown to abate hunger and has a higher thermic effect than fat or carbs, meaning the increase in metabolic rate that occurs after eating.


Yogurt and other dairy products can also help with weight control, because they increase levels of hormones that promote fullness, including PYY and GLP-1. Full-fat yogurt also contains conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which may increase fat loss and decrease breast cancer risk.


Certain types of Greek yogurt are good sources of probiotics, like Bifidobacterium, helping the gut stay healthy. To make sure your yogurt contains probiotics, look for the phrase “contains live and active cultures” on the label.


Bottom Line: Greek yogurt is high in protein, helps reduce appetite and may aid with weight loss. Certain types also contain beneficial probiotics.


3. Coffee

Coffee is a common choice for many to start a day. It’s high in caffeine, which improves mood, alertness and mental performance.


An analysis of 41 studies found the most effective dose to be 38–400 mg per day, to maximize the benefits of caffeine without much side effects. This is roughly 0.3 to 4 cups of coffee per day, depending on how strong it is.


Caffeine has also been shown to increase metabolic rate and fat burning. 100 mg of caffeine per day helped people burn an extra 79–150 calories over a 24-hour period. Coffee is also rich in antioxidants, which reduce inflammation, protect the cells lining your blood vessels and decrease diabetes and liver disease risk. The healthiest way to consume coffee is plain or with small amounts of heavy cream.


Bottom Line: Having a cup of coffee is a great way to start your day. The caffeine in it may improve mood, mental performance and metabolism.


4. Oatmeal


Oatmeal is the best breakfast choice for cereal lovers. It’s made from ground oats, which contain a unique fiber called beta-glucan. This fiber has many impressive health benefits, including reduced cholesterol.


Oats are also rich in antioxidants, which protect their fatty acids from becoming rancid; they may also help protect the heart and decrease blood pressure.


Although oats don’t contain gluten, they’re often processed in the same facilities as gluten-containing grains. Researchers have found that most oats are indeed contaminated with other grains, especially barley. Therefore, people with celiac disease or gluten sensitivity should choose oats that have been certified as gluten-free.


Bottom Line: Oatmeal is rich in beta-glucan fiber, which lowers cholesterol and increases feelings of fullness. It also contains antioxidants.


5. Chia Seeds


Chia seeds are extremely nutritious. They’re also one of the best sources of fiber. One ounce (28 grams) of chia seeds provides an impressive 11 grams of fiber per serving.


What’s more, a portion of the fiber in chia seeds is viscous fiber. Viscous fiber absorbs water, which increases the volume of food moving through your digestive tract and helps you feel full and satisfied.


Chia seeds are also high in antioxidants, which protect your cells from unstable molecules called free radicals, that are produced during metabolism.


However, note that chia seeds provide a low amount of protein- too low for breakfast. It’s suggested to be taken with other food that provides more protein. 


Bottom Line: Chia seeds are high in fiber and packed with antioxidants that may reduce inflammation and decrease disease risk.


6. Berries

Berries are delicious and packed with antioxidants. Popular types include blueberries, raspberries, strawberries and blackberries.


They’re lower in sugar than most fruits, yet higher in fiber. Raspberries and blackberries each provides an impressive 8 grams of fiber per cup. What’s more, one cup of berries contains only 50–85 calories, depending on the type.


Berries have been shown to reduce markers of inflammation, prevent blood cholesterol from becoming oxidized and keep the cells lining your blood vessels healthy.


A good way to add berries to your breakfast is to eat them with Greek yogurt or cottage cheese.


Bottom Line: Berries are high in fiber and low in calories. They’re also rich in antioxidants that may decrease the risk of disease.


7. Nuts

Nuts are a great addition to breakfast because they are filling and help prevent weight gain. Even though they’re high in calories, studies have shown that the body only absorbs about 129 calories from a 28-gram (1-ounce) serving of almonds; this may be true for some other nuts as well. 


All types of nuts are also high in magnesium, potassium and heart-healthy monounsaturated fat. Nuts are also beneficial for people with diabetes. In one study, replacing a portion of carbs with 2 ounces of nuts led to reduced blood sugar and cholesterol levels.


Topping Greek yogurt, cottage cheese or oatmeal with 2 tablespoons of chopped nuts provides crunch and flavor, while increasing your breakfast’s nutritional value.


Bottom Line: Nuts are filling, nutrient-dense foods that may help reduce heart disease risk and improve blood sugar control.


8. Green Tea


Green tea contains caffeine, which improves alertness and mood, along with raising metabolic rate. It provides only 35–70 mg of caffeine per cup, which is about half the amount in coffee.


Green tea may be especially helpful against diabetes. A review of 17 studies found that green tea drinkers had reductions in blood sugar and insulin levels.


It also contains an antioxidant known as EGCG, which may protect the brain, nervous system and heart from damage.


Bottom Line: Green tea has many health benefits. It contains an antioxidant called EGCG, which has benefits for the brain and nervous system.


9. Protein Shake

Another great way to start your day is with a protein shake or smoothie. Several types of protein powder can be used, including whey, egg, soy and pea protein, among which, whey protein is absorbed the most quickly by the body.


In addition, whey protein can help lower blood sugar levels when consumed as part of a carb-containing meal. It can also preserve muscle mass during weight loss and aging.


Regardless of the type of protein powder used, a high-protein shake can be satisfying and filling. Add fruit, greens, nut butter or seeds to provide fiber and antioxidants.


Bottom Line: A protein shake or smoothie is a great high-protein breakfast choice that promotes fullness and helps stabilize blood sugar levels.


10. Fruit


All types of fruit contain vitamins, potassium, fiber and are relatively low in calories. One cup of chopped fruit provides about 80–130 calories, depending on the type. Citrus fruits are also very high in vitamin C. In fact, a large orange provides more than 100% of the recommended daily intake of vitamin C.


Fruit is also very filling, due to its high fiber and water content. Pair fruit with eggs, cheese, cottage cheese or Greek yogurt for a well-balanced breakfast that will sustain you for hours.


Bottom Line: Fruit is a good source of vitamins, potassium and fiber. It also contains antioxidants that can help reduce disease risk.


11. Flaxseeds


They’re rich in viscous fiber, which helps you feel full for several hours after eating. Flaxseeds may also improve insulin sensitivity and reduce blood sugar levels, as well as protect against breast cancer.


Two tablespoons of ground flaxseeds contain 3 grams of protein and 4 grams of fiber. Try adding flaxseeds to Greek yogurt, cottage cheese or a smoothie to increase the fiber and antioxidant content of your breakfast.


Just make sure to choose ground flaxseeds or grind them yourself, because whole flaxseeds can’t be absorbed by your gut and will simply pass through your system.


Bottom Line: Flaxseeds are high in viscous fiber, which helps you feel full. They may also improve insulin sensitivity and reduce blood sugar levels.


12. Cottage Cheese


It’s high in protein, which increases metabolism, produces feelings of fullness and decreases the “hunger hormone” ghrelin. Cottage cheese has been shown to be as filling and satisfying as eggs.


Full-fat cottage cheese also contains conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which may promote weight loss. 1 cup of cottage cheese provides an impressive 25 grams of protein. Add berries and ground flaxseeds or chopped nuts to make it even more nutritious.


Bottom Line: Cottage cheese is high in protein, which promotes feelings of fullness and increases your metabolic rate.


Take Home Message


While eating breakfast is a personal choice, starting a day off right by fueling the body with healthy and nutrient-dense foods is definitely a good idea.




Source: Authority Nutrition

Eggs are one of the world’s healthiest foods.

They contain numerous important nutrients and can provide you with impressive health benefits.

Raw eggs do have all the same benefits as cooked eggs.

However, eating raw eggs or foods containing them raises concerns about the risk of Salmonella infection.

Also, your absorption of some nutrients may be reduced or even blocked completely.

Raw Eggs Are Nutritious

Just like cooked eggs, raw eggs are extremely nutritious.

They’re rich in high-quality protein, healthy fats, vitamins, minerals, eye-protecting antioxidants and various other nutrients.

One whole, large raw egg (50 grams) contains (1):

  • Calories: 72.
  • Protein: 6 grams.
  • Fat: 5 grams.
  • Vitamin A: 9% of the RDI.
  • Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin): 13% of the RDI.
  • Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid): 8% of the RDI.
  • Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin): 7% of the RDI.
  • Selenium: 22% of the RDI.
  • Phosphorus: 10% of the RDI.
  • Folate: 6% of the RDI.

In addition, one raw egg contains 147 mg of choline, an essential nutrient important for healthy brain function. Choline may also play a role in heart health (2, 3, 4).

Raw eggs are also high in lutein and zeaxanthin. These important antioxidants protect your eyes and may reduce your risk of age-related eye diseases (5).

It’s important to note that almost all the nutrients are concentrated in the yolk. The white mostly consists of protein.Bottom Line: Raw eggs are a nutrient-dense food packed with protein, good fats, vitamins, minerals and antioxidants that protect your eyes. They’re also an excellent source of choline. The yolks contain most of the nutrients.

The Protein in Them Isn’t as Well-Absorbed

Raw Egg Half Open

Eggs are one of the best sources of protein in your diet.

In fact, eggs contain all 9 essential amino acids in the right ratios. For this reason, they’re often referred to as a “complete” protein source.

However, eating the eggs raw may decrease your absorption of these quality proteins.

One small study compared the absorption of protein from both cooked and raw eggs in 5 people (6).

The study found that 90% of protein in cooked eggs was absorbed, but only 50% in raw eggs. In other words, protein in cooked eggs was 80% more digestible.

Although protein is better absorbed from cooked eggs, some other nutrients may be slightly reduced by cooking. These include vitamin A, vitamin B5, phosphorus and potassium.

Bottom Line: Research indicates protein in cooked eggs is much more digestible than protein in raw eggs. If you eat them raw then your body may not be able to absorb all the protein.

Raw Egg Whites May Block Biotin Absorption

Three Raw Eggs in a Glass

Biotin is a water-soluble B-vitamin, also known as vitamin B7.

This vitamin is involved in your body’s production of glucose and fatty acids. It’s also important during pregnancy (7).

While egg yolks provide a good dietary source of biotin, raw egg whites contain a protein called avidin. Avidin binds to biotin in the small intestine, preventing its absorption (8, 9, 10).

Because heat destroys avidin, this is not an issue when the egg has been cooked.

In any case, even if you eat raw eggs, it’s highly unlikely it will lead to actual biotin deficiency. For that to happen, you would need to consume raw eggs in large amounts — at least a dozen per day for a long period of time (11). Bottom Line: Raw egg whites contain the protein avidin, which may block absorption of biotin, a water-soluble B-vitamin. However, it’s unlikely to cause deficiency unless you eat a lot of raw eggs

Raw Eggs May Be Contaminated with Bacteria

Raw Egg Cracked Open, Isolated

Raw and undercooked eggs may contain Salmonella, a type of harmful bacteria (12).

This bacteria can be found on egg shells but also inside eggs (13).

Consuming contaminated eggs can cause food poisoning.

Symptoms of food poisoning include stomach cramps, diarrhea, nausea, fever and headache. These symptoms usually appear 6 to 48 hours after eating and may last 3 to 7 days (14).

Fortunately, the risk of an egg being contaminated is very low. One study found only 1 of every 30,000 eggs produced in the US is contaminated (15).

However, from the 1970s through the 1990s, contaminated egg shells were the most common source of Salmonella infection (16, 17, 18).

Since then, some improvements have been made in the processing of eggs, leading to fewer Salmonella cases and outbreaks.

These changes include pasteurization. This process uses heat treatment to reduce the number of bacteria and other microorganisms in foods (19).

The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) considers it safe to use raw eggs if they are pasteurized.

Bottom Line: Raw eggs may contain a type of pathogenic bacteria called Salmonella, which can cause food poisoning. However, the risk of an egg being contaminated is quite low.

Bacterial Infection Is More Dangerous for Certain People

Salmonella infection is more of a concern in certain populations. In some people, it can have serious or even fatal consequences.

These include (20):

  • Infants and young children: The youngest age group is more susceptible to infections due to immature immune systems.
  • Pregnant women: In rare cases, Salmonella may cause cramps in the uterus of pregnant women that can lead to premature birth or stillbirth (21).
  • The elderly: People over the age of 65 are more likely to die from food-borne infections. Contributing factors include malnutrition and age-related changes in the digestive system (22).
  • Immune-compromised individuals: The immune system is weaker and more vulnerable to infections in people with chronic disease. People with diabetes, HIV and malignant tumors are among those who should not eat raw eggs (23).

These groups should avoid eating raw eggs and foods that contain them. Homemade foods that often contain them include mayonnaise, cake icings and ice cream.Bottom Line: Infants, pregnant women, older adults and other high-risk groups should avoid eating raw eggs. In these groups, Salmonella infection may lead to serious, life-threatening complications.

How to Minimize The Risk of Bacterial Infection

Two Raw Eggs in a Glass

It’s not possible to completely eliminate the risk of infection from eating raw eggs. However, there are ways to reduce it (24).

Here are a few effective tips:

  • Buy pasteurized eggs and egg products, which are available in some supermarkets.
  • Only buy eggs kept in the refrigerated food section of the grocery store.
  • Keep eggs refrigerated in your home. Storing them at room temperature may induce rapid growth of harmful bacteria.
  • Don’t buy or consume eggs past their expiration date.
  • Get rid of cracked or dirty eggs.

However, the only sure way to eliminate the risk is to cook your eggs thoroughly.

Bottom Line: Buying pasteurized and refridgerated eggs can lower the risk of Salmonella infection. Proper storage and handling after you purchase them is also important.

Take Home Message

Raw eggs do have all the same benefits as cooked eggs.

However, protein absorption is lower from raw eggs, and the uptake of biotin may be prevented.

Most concerning is the small risk of raw eggs contaminated with bacteria leading to Salmonella infection. Buying pasteurized eggs will lower your risk of infection.

Whether eating raw eggs is worth the risk is something you need to decide for yourself.

Just remember that very young children, pregnant women, elderly people and individuals with weak immune systems should not eat them.


Meat is a highly controversial food.

On one hand, it’s a staple in many diets and is a great source of protein and important nutrients.

On the other hand, some people believe eating it is unhealthy, unethical and unnecessary.

This article takes a detailed look at the health benefits and potential risks of eating meat.

What Is Meat?

Meat is the flesh of animals that humans prepare and consume as food.

In the US and many other countries, the term mainly refers to muscle tissue. It is typically consumed as steak, chops, ribs, roast or in ground form, like hamburger.

In the past, offal such as liver, kidneys, brains and intestines were commonly enjoyed in most cultures. However, most Western diets now exclude them.

Nevertheless, offal remains popular in some parts of the world, particularly among traditional societies. Many delicacies are also based on organs.

Foie gras is made from duck or goose liver. Sweetbreads are thymus glands and pancreas. And menudo is a soup made from intestines.

Today, most meat worldwide comes from domesticated animals raised on farms, mainly large industrial complexes that often house thousands of animals at a time.

However, in some traditional cultures, hunting animals remains the sole means for obtaining it.

Different Types

Types of meat are categorized by their animal source and how they are prepared.

Red Meat

Cut Pieces of Red Meat

This comes from mammals and contains more of the iron-rich protein myoglobin in its tissue than white meat. Examples include:

  • Beef (cattle).
  • Pork (pigs and hogs).
  • Lamb.
  • Veal (calves).
  • Goat.
  • Game, such as bison, elk and venison (deer).

White Meat

Raw Turkey Breast

This is generally lighter in color than red meat and comes from birds and small game. Examples include:

  • Chicken.
  • Turkey.
  • Duck.
  • Goose.
  • Wild birds, such as quail and pheasant.
  • Rabbit.

Processed Meat

Sliced Salami

Processed meat has been modified through salting, curing, smoking, drying or other processes to preserve it or enhance flavor. Examples include:

  • Hot dogs.
  • Sausage.
  • Bacon.
  • Luncheon meats, such as bologna, salami and pastrami.
  • Jerky.

Bottom Line: Meat comes from a variety of different animals and is classified as either red or white, depending

Nutrients in Meat

Three Cuts of Meat on a Marble Table

Lean meat is considered an excellent protein source. It contains about 25-30% protein by weight after cooking.

3.5 oz (100 grams) of cooked chicken breast contains about 31 grams of protein. The same serving of lean beef contains about 27 grams (1, 2).

Animal protein is a complete protein, meaning it provides all 9 essential amino acids.

A 3.5-oz (100-gram) portion of lean beef provides (2):

  • Calories: 205.
  • Protein: About 27 grams.
  • Riboflavin: 11% of the RDI.
  • Niacin: 19% of the RDI.
  • Vitamin B6: 16% of the RDI.
  • Vitamin B12: 19% of the RDI.
  • Niacin: 63% of the RDI.
  • Phosphorus: 24% of the RDI.
  • Zinc: 50% of the RDI.
  • Selenium: 28% of the RDI.

The nutrient profiles of other muscle meats are similar, although they contain less zinc. Interestingly, pork is especially high in the vitamin thiamine, providing 63% of the RDI per 3.5 oz (100 grams) (3).

Liver and other organs are also high in vitamin A, vitamin B12, iron and selenium. They’re also an excellent source of choline, an important nutrient for brain, muscle and liver health (4).on the source. Processed products have been modified with additives to enhance flavor.

Cooking Methods and Effects on Carcinogens

Cooking and preparing meats in certain ways may negatively affect your health.

When they’re grilled, barbecued or smoked at high temperatures, fat is released and drips onto hot cooking surfaces.

This produces toxic compounds called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that can rise up and seep into the meat.

PAHs are carcinogenic, meaning they can cause cancer. However, minimizing smoke and quickly wiping away drippings can reduce PAH formation by up to 89% (5, 6, 7).

Heterocyclic amines (HAs) are formed when meat is heated to high temperatures and forms a dark crust. HA levels have been shown to rise during extended cooking times and with lengthy cooling down after cooking (8, 9).

Nitrates are additives in processed meats that were formerly considered carcinogenic, but are now considered harmless or even beneficial.

However, researchers disagree about whether similar additives known as nitrites (with an “i”) increase cancer risk (10, 11).

Bottom Line: Cooking food at high temperatures or for long periods of time can increase the production of toxic byproducts capable of causing cancer.

Meat and Cancer

Three Pieces of Meat on a Two Pronged Fork

Many people claim that eating meat raises cancer risk. However, this largely depends on the type you eat and how it’s cooked.

Is Red Meat Bad?

Some observational studies link a high red meat intake to several types of cancer, including digestive tract, prostate, kidney and breast cancers (12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19).

However, in nearly every study, the association was between cancer and well-done meat, PAHs or HAs, rather than red meat itself. These studies indicate that high-heat cooking had a very strong effect.

Of all cancers, colon cancer has the strongest association with red meat intake, with dozens of studies reporting a connection.

Aside from a few studies that didn’t distinguish between processed and fresh meat or cooking method, increased risk seems to occur mostly with higher intake of processed and well-done meat (20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25).

In a 2011 analysis of 25 studies, researchers concluded that there was insufficient evidence to support a clear-cut link between red meat and colon cancer (22).

Other Factors That May Affect Cancer Risk

While red meat cooked at high temperatures may increase cancer risk, white meat doesn’t seem to. In fact, one study found that poultry consumption was linked to a reduced risk of colon cancer, even when cooked to the point of charring (20, 22, 24).

Animal and observational studies suggest that, in addition to toxic compounds created during high-heat cooking, heme iron found in red meat may play a role in colon cancer development (26, 27).

In addition, some researchers believe processed meat may potentially lead to inflammation in the colon that increases cancer risk (28).

In one study, adding calcium or vitamin E to cured meat reduced levels of toxic end-products in the feces of humans and rats. What’s more, these nutrients were found to improve pre-cancerous colon lesions in the rats (29).

It’s important to realize that because these studies are observational, they can only show a relationship and cannot prove that red or processed meat causes cancer.

However, it definitely seems wise to limit your consumption of processed meat. If you choose to eat red meat, then use gentler cooking methods and avoid burning it.

Bottom Line: Observational studies have shown a link between well-done or processed meat and increased risk of cancer, especially colon cancer.

Meat and Heart Disease

Knife Cutting Grilled Meat

Several large observational studies exploring meat intake and heart disease have found an increased risk with processed products. Only one study found a weak association for red meat alone (30, 31, 32, 33).

In 2010, researchers performed a massive review of 20 studies with over 1.2 million people. They found that consuming processed — but not red — meat appeared to increase heart disease risk by 42% (30).

However, these studies don’t prove that a high intake of processed meat causes heart disease. They only suggest that there may be a relationship.

Some controlled studies have found that frequent meat consumption, including high-fat varieties, has had a neutral or positive effect on heart disease risk factors (34, 35).

Bottom Line: Processed meat has been linked to heart disease in some studies, while controlled studies have shown that meat may have a neutral or beneficial effect.

Meat and Type 2 Diabetes

Several large studies have also shown an association between processed or red meat and type 2 diabetes (30, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41).

One review of three studies found that consuming more than half a serving of red meat daily increased the risk of developing diabetes within four years by 30%, in part related to weight gain (37).

However, it’s entirely possible that the people who ended up with diabetes had engaged in unhealthy behaviors, such as consuming too many refined carbs, eating too few vegetables or simply overeating in general.

In studies on low-carb diets, which tend to be high in meat, blood sugar levels and other diabetes markers tend to go down (42).

Bottom Line: Some observational studies show a relationship between red and processed meats and increased diabetes risk. However, this may also depend on other dietary factors.

Meat, Weight Control and Obesity

Fork and Knife on Green Scales

A high intake of red and processed meat has been linked to obesity in several observational studies.

This includes a review of 39 studies with data from over 1.1 million people (43).

However, the results from individual studies varied greatly (43).

In one study, researchers found that although there was a relationship between frequent red meat consumption and obesity, people who ate the most also took in about 700 more calories daily than those who ate less (44).

Again, these studies are observational and don’t account for other types and amounts of food consumed on a regular basis.

And although red meat is frequently linked to obesity and weight gain while white meat isn’t, one controlled study found no difference in weight changes among overweight people assigned to eat beef, pork or chicken for three months (45).

Another study in people with prediabetes found that weight loss and body composition improvements were similar whether subjects consumed diets based on animal or plant protein (46).

Consuming fresh, whole foods appears to benefit weight loss, regardless of whether meat is consumed or not.

In one study, 10 obese postmenopausal women followed an unrestricted paleo diet with 30% of calories as mainly animal protein, including meat. After five weeks, weight decreased by 10 lbs (4.5 kg) and belly fat decreased by 8%, on average (47).

Bottom Line: While some observational studies have linked red and processed meat intake to obesity, overall calorie intake is key. Controlled studies have shown that weight loss can occur despite high meat intake.

Benefits of Eating Meat

Eating meat has several health benefits:

  • Reduced appetite and increased metabolism: Many studies have shown that high-protein diets that include meat increase metabolic rate, reduce hunger and promote fullness (48, 49, 50, 51).
  • Retention of muscle mass: Animal protein intake is consistently linked to increased muscle mass. In one study in older women, eating beef increased muscle mass and also reduced markers of inflammation (52, 53, 54, 55, 56).
  • Stronger bones: Animal protein may improve bone density and strength. In one study, older women with the highest intake of animal protein had a 69% decreased risk of hip fractures (57, 58).
  • Better iron absorption: Meat contains heme iron, which your body absorbs better than non-heme iron from plants (59, 60, 61).

    Bottom Line: Meat has benefits for appetite, metabolism, iron absorption and the health of your muscles and bones.

    Ethical and Environmental Perspectives

    Man's Hands Touching a Leg of Lamb on a Chopping Board

    Some people choose not to eat meat because they don’t believe in killing animals for food when there are other ways to meet nutrition needs.

    This is a valid point of view that should be respected.

    Others object to animals being raised in large, industrial complexes that are sometimes referred to as “factory farms,” which is also very understandable.

    These farms are overcrowded and often don’t allow animals to get sufficient exercise, sunlight or room to move. To prevent infection, livestock are often given antibiotics, which can lead to antibiotic resistance (62, 63).

    Many animals are given steroid hormones like estrogen, progesterone and testosterone to speed growth. This raises additional health and ethical concerns (64).

    The environmental effects of factory farming have also been criticized, particularly the waste produced during raising and slaughtering, as well as the high cost of grain-based meat production (63, 65, 66, 67).

    Fortunately, there are alternatives. You can support small farms that raise animals humanely, don’t use antibiotics or hormones and provide their animals with natural diets.

    Bottom Line: Some object to killing animals for food, inhumane conditions on industrial farms or the environmental effects of raising livestock.

    How to Maximize Benefits and Minimize Negative Effects

    Bowl of Salad With Chicken

    Here’s how to ensure you’re consuming meat in a way that’s healthiest for you and the planet:

    • Choose fresh products: Fresh meat will always be healthier for you than processed varieties.
    • Give organ meats a try: Add these to your diet to take advantage of their high nutrient content.
    • Minimize high-heat cooking: If you grill, barbecue or use another high-heat method, wipe away drippings right away and avoid overcooking or charring.
    • Consume unprocessed, plant-based foods: These are high in fiber, contain valuable antioxidants and help make your diet well balanced.
    • Choose organic meat from small farms: This is more environmentally friendly and better from an ethical perspective.
    • Select grass-fed beef: Cattle that consume a natural diet of grass, rather than grain, produce meat that is higher in healthy omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants (68, 69, 70).

    Bottom Line: To maximize benefits and and minimize risk, choose fresh meat, avoid high-heat cooking, include plant foods in your diet and choose organic or grass-fed whenever possible.

    Should You Eat Meat?

    Unprocessed and properly cooked meat has many nutrients and may have some health benefits. If you enjoy eating meat, then there is no compelling health or nutritional reason to stop.

    However, if you don’t feel right about eating animals, you can also stay healthy by following a well-balanced vegetarian diet.

    Ultimately, whether you consume meat is a personal choice and one that others should respect.


9 Healthy Foods that are High in Vitamin D

Vitamin D is unique, because it can be obtained from food and sun exposure.

However, up to 50% of the world’s population may not get enough sunlight, and 40% of people in the US are deficient in vitamin D

This is partly because people spend more time indoors, wear sunblock outside and eat a Western diet low in good sources of this vitamin.

Here are 9 healthy foods that are high in vitamin D.

1. Salmon

Salmon is a popular fatty fish and also a great source of vitamin D.

According to nutrient databases, one 3.5-oz (100-gram) serving of salmon contains between 361 and 685 IU of vitamin D

However, it is usually not specified whether salmon is wild or farmed. This might not seem important, but it can make a big difference.

One study found that wild-caught salmon contains 988 IU of vitamin D per 3.5-oz (100-gram) serving, on average. That’s 247% of the Reference Daily Intake (RDI)

Farmed salmon contained only 25% of that amount, on average. Still, that means a serving of farmed salmon contains about 250 IU of vitamin D, which is 63% of the RDI

Bottom Line: Wild salmon is better.

2. Herring and Sardines

Herring is a fish eaten around the world. It can be served raw, canned, smoked or pickled.

It’s also one of the best sources of vitamin D.

Fresh Atlantic herring provides 1,628 IU per 3.5-oz (100-gram) serving, which is four times the RDI

If fresh fish isn’t your thing, pickled herring is also a great source of vitamin D, providing 680 IU per 3.5-oz (100-gram) serving. That’s 170% of the RDI.

Sardines are another type of herring that is also a good source of vitamin D. One serving contains 272 IU, which is 68% of the RDI

Other types of fatty fish are also good vitamin D sources. Halibut provides 600 IU per serving and mackerel provides 360 IU per serving

Be warned, these food come with a lot of salt, so definitely limit and watch your intake.

Bottom Line: Herring contains 1,628 IU of vitamin D per 3.5-oz (100-gram) serving. Pickled herring, sardines and other fatty fish such as halibut and mackerel are also good sources.

3. Cod Liver Oil

Cod liver oil is a popular supplement. If you don’t like fish, taking cod liver oil can be a good way to obtain certain nutrients that are hard to get from other sources.

At about 450 IU per teaspoon (4.9 ml), cod liver oil is an excellent source of vitamin D. It’s been used for many years to prevent and treat deficiency in children

However, it’s best to be cautious with cod liver oil and not take more than you need.

Bottom Line: Cod liver oil contains 450 IU of vitamin D per teaspoon (4.9 ml). It is also high in other nutrients, such as vitamin A.

4. Canned Tuna

Many people enjoy canned tuna because of its light flavour and the fact that it can be kept on-hand in the pantry.

It is also usually cheaper than buying fresh fish.

Canned light tuna contains up to 236 IU of vitamin D in a 100-gram (3.5-oz) serving, which is more than half of the RDI.

Light tuna is typically a better choice than white tuna.

Bottom Line: Canned tuna contains 236 IU of vitamin D per serving. Choose light tuna and eat 6 oz or less per week

5. Oysters

Oysters are a type of clam that live in salt water. They are delicious, low in calories and full of nutrients.


One 3.5-oz (100-gram) serving of wild oysters has only 68 calories, but contains 320 IU of vitamin D, or 80% of the RDI.

In addition, one serving of oysters contains 2–6 times more than the RDI of vitamin B12, copper and zinc — far more than multivitamins contain.

Bottom Line: Oysters are full of nutrients and provide 320 IU of vitamin D. They also contain more vitamin B12, copper and zinc than a multivitamin.

6. Shrimp

Shrimp are a popular type of shellfish.

Yet unlike most other seafood sources of vitamin D, shrimp are very low in fat.

Despite this fact, they still contain a good amount of vitamin D — 152 IU per serving, or 38% of the RDI

Bottom Line: Shrimp contain 152 IU of vitamin D per serving and are also very low in fat. They do contain cholesterol, but this is not a cause for concern.

7. Egg Yolks

Luckily for people who don’t like fish, seafood is not the only source of vitamin D. Whole eggs are another good source, as well as a wonderfully nutritious food.

While most of the protein in an egg is found in the egg white, the fat, vitamins and minerals are found mostly in the egg yolk.

One conventionally grown egg yolk contains between 18 and 39 IU of vitamin D, which isn’t very high

However, pasture-raised chickens that roam outside in the sunlight produce eggs with levels that are three to four times higher

Choosing eggs that are either from chickens raised outside or that are marketed as high in vitamin D can be a great way to help meet your daily requirements.

Bottom Line: Eggs from commercially raised hens contain only about 30 IU of vitamin D per yolk. However, eggs from hens raised outside or fed vitamin D-enriched feed contain much higher levels.

8. Mushrooms

Excluding fortified foods, mushrooms are the only plant source of vitamin D.

Similar to humans, mushrooms can synthesize this vitamin when exposed to UV light

Some varieties contain up to 2,300 IU per 3.5-oz (100-gram) serving.

Commercially grown mushrooms, on the other hand, are often grown in the dark and contain very little vitamin D2.

Bottom Line: Only wild mushrooms or mushrooms treated with UV light are good sources of vitamin D.

9. Fortified Foods

Natural sources of vitamin D are limited, especially if you’re a vegetarian or don’t like fish.

Fortunately, some foods that don’t naturally contain vitamin D are fortified with it.

Cow’s Milk

Cow’s milk, the type of milk that most people drink, is naturally a good source of many nutrients including calcium, phosphorous and riboflavin

In several countries, cow’s milk is fortified with vitamin D. It usually contains about 130 IU per cup (237 ml), or about 33% of the RDI.

Soy Milk

Because vitamin D is found almost exclusively in animal products, vegetarians and vegans are at particularly high risk of not getting enough of it.

For this reason, plant-based milks such as soy milk are also often fortified with it, as well as other vitamins and minerals usually found in cow’s milk.

Orange Juice

Around 75% of people worldwide are lactose intolerant, and another 2–3% have a milk allergy

For this reason, some countries fortify orange juice with vitamin D and other nutrients, such as calcium.

One cup (237 ml) of fortified orange juice for breakfast can start your day off with up to 142 IU of vitamin D, or 36% of the RDI

Cereal and Oatmeal


Certain cereals and instant oatmeal are also fortified with vitamin D.One half-cup serving of these foods can provide between 55 and 154 IU, or up to 39% of the RDI


Although fortified cereals and oatmeal provide less vitamin D than many natural sources, they can still be a good way to boost your intake.

Bottom Line: Some foods are fortified with vitamin D, including cow’s milk, soy milk, orange juice, cereals and oatmeal. They contain between 55 and 130 IU per serving.

Take Home Message

Spending some time outside in the sun is the best way to get your daily dose of vitamin D. However, getting sufficient sun exposure is not possible for many people.

Getting enough from your diet alone is difficult, but not impossible.

Eating plenty of these vitamin D-rich foods is a great way to make sure you get enough of this important nutrient.

Sugary Drinks – The most fattening aspect of the modern diet. As the brain doesn’t “register” them as food, therefore people don’t automatically compensate by eating less of other foods, and end up drastically increasing their calorie intake. Sugar is strongly linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and is also associated with various serious diseases, including type 2 diabetes and heart disease Alternatives: Drink water, soda water, coffee or tea instead.

Most Pizzas, one of the world’s most popular junk foods. The problem is that most commercially prepared pizzas are made with seriously unhealthy ingredients. The dough is made from highly refined wheat flour, and the meats on them are usually processed. Pizza is also extremely high in calories. Alternatives: Some pizza places use healthier ingredients. Homemade pizzas can also be very healthy, as long as you choose wholesome ingredients.

. White Bread, which is generally made from wheat, which contains gluten. All wheat-based breads are a bad idea for people who have celiac disease or gluten sensitivity. However, most commercial breads are unhealthy for everyone, because most are made from refined wheat, which is low in essential nutrients and leads to rapid spikes in blood sugar. Alternatives: For people who can tolerate gluten, Ezekiel bread is an excellent choice. Whole grain bread is also definitely better than white bread

. Most Fruit Juices are often assumed to be healthy. However, many fruit juices are actually little more than fruit-flavoured sugar water. Juice does contain some antioxidants and vitamin C, however it also contains just as much sugar as a sugary drink like Coke, and sometimes even more. Alternatives: Some fruit juices have been shown to have health benefits despite the sugar content, such as pomegranate and blueberry. Water is still the best alternative.

Industrial Vegetable Oils. In the last 100 years or so, people have increased their consumption of added fats due to a drastic increase in the consumption of refined vegetable oils such as soybean, corn, cottonseed and canola. These oils are very high in omega-6 fatty acids, highly sensitive to oxidation and cause increased oxidative stress in the body. They have also been linked to increased risk of cancer.

Margarine is a highly processed pseudo-food that has been engineered to look and taste like butter. It is loaded with artificial ingredients, and is usually made with industrial vegetable oils that have been hydrogenated to make them more solid. This increases their trans-fat content significantly. Alternatives: Use real butter instead, preferably from grass-fed cows

Pastries, Cookies and Cakes - Most pastries, cookies and cakes are made with refined sugar, refined wheat flour and added fats, which are often disturbingly unhealthy fats like shortening (high in trans-fats). With almost no essential nutrients, but tons of calories and unhealthy ingredients, they are literally some of the worst things that you can put into your body

French Fries and Potato Chips: Whole, white potatoes are very healthy. However, products that are made from them, such as fries and potato chips, are very high in calories, and it is easy to eat excessive amounts. These foods may also contain large amounts of acrylamides, carcinogenic substances that form when potatoes are fried, baked or roasted. Alternatives: Potatoes are best consumed boiled, not fried. If you need something crunchy to replace potato chips, try baby carrots or nuts.

Gluten-Free Junk Foods. There are many glutenfree diets. However, people replace the gluten foods with junk gluten-free processed foods which are often high in sugar, unhealthy oils and refined grains like corn starch or tapioca starch. These refined starches lead to rapid spikes in blood sugar, and are extremely low in essential nutrients. Alternatives: Choose foods that are naturally glutenfree, like unprocessed plants and animal foods.

. Agave Nectar: Agave nectar is a highly refined sweetener that is often marketed as healthy. It is extremely high in fructose and can be disastrous for

Low-Fat Yogurt: Yogurt can be incredibly healthy. Unfortunately, most yogurts are loaded with sugar to make up for the lack of taste that the fats provided. They are made ‘healthy’ by replacing natural dairy fats removed, with much worse ingredients.Alternatives: Choose regular, full-fat yogurt that contains live or active cultures (probiotics). If you can get your hands on it, choose yogurt from grass-fed cows.

Low-Carb Junk Foods: Processed low-carb replacement products, such as low-carb candy bars and meal replacements, are often highly processed foods and contain very little actual nutrition. There are plenty of real foods that you can eat on a low-carb diet, most of which are very healthy. Alternatives: If you’re on a low-carb diet, eat foods that are naturally low in carbs.

Ice Cream is one of the unhealthiest foods on the planet. Most commercial ice cream is loaded with sugar, high in calories, and it is very easy to eat excessive amounts. Eating it for dessert is even worse, because then you’re adding it all on top of your total calorie intake. Alternatives: It is possible to make your own ice cream using healthier ingredients and significantly less (or no) sugar.

. Processed Meat. Even though unprocessed meat can be healthy and nutritious, processed meats lead to higher risks of many serious diseases, including colon cancer, type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Alternatives: If you want to eat bacon, sausages, pepperoni and other “processed” meats, then choose wisely and try to buy them locally from sellers who don’t add a lot of unhealthy ingredients. Quality counts

. Processed Cheese. Regular cheese is healthy. It is loaded with nutrients, and a single slice of cheese contains all the same nutrients as an entire glass of milk. However, processed cheese products are mostly made with filler ingredients that are combined and engineered to have a similar look and texture as cheese. Read labels, and make sure that you eat actual not processed cheese. Alternatives: Eat real cheese instead

. Most Fast Food Meals. This is because generally most “fast food” chains serve only junk foods. The majority of the food they offer is mass-produced, highly engineered junk food with very little nutritional value

High-Calorie “Coffee” Drinks: Coffee is very healthy. It is loaded with antioxidants which helps lower risks of serious diseases, like type 2 diabetes and Parkinson’s. However, coffee with artificial creamer and added sugar is just as unhealthy as any other sugar-sweetened beverage. Alternatives: Drink plain coffee instead. Black is best, but small amounts of heavy cream or full-fat milk are fine as well.

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